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Overview of Capromorelin (Entyce®) for Canines and Felines
- Capromorelin Oral Solution, commonly known as Entyce®, is used as an appetite stimulant in dogs and in cats as an extra-label. Capromorelin is can be used in combination with anti-vomiting or acid-reducing drugs.
- Capromorelin is an orally administered drug belonging belongs to the ghrelin receptor agonist group of drug compounds that finds to receptors and induces the signal in the hypothalamus of the brain to cause appetite stimulation. Capromorelin also binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor in the pituitary gland to increase levels of growth hormone. In human studies, this is thought to have therapeutic value in the elderly who have less muscle mass, which can lead to weakness. Human studies have not only found an increased appetite and weight gain, but also improved balance and coordination.
- Although most drug studies on Capromorelin where short-term studies, additional studies have suggested that it can be used successfully for long-term use. One study demonstrated that capromorelin was well-tolerated in dogs dosed up to 52.4 mg/kg for 12 months. This study also suggested that there is a wide margin of safety as capromorelin was dosed at approximately 17.5X the clinical dose.
- Capromorelin is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian. It came to the veterinary market by Aratana Therapeutics in 2017 and has slowly gained acceptance in the veterinary market.
- Capromorelin should be used in combination with other measures to encourage appetite. Special foods and nutrition requirements should be part of the treatment plan that you discuss with your veterinarian.
Brand Names and Other Names for Capromorelin
- This drug FDA approved for use in dogs. Although only approved for use in dogs, it has been used successfully off-label for cats to increase appetite.
- Human formulations: None
- Veterinary formulations: ENTYCE® by Aratana Therapeutics
Uses of Capromorelin for Dogs and Cats
- Capromorelin is used as an appetite stimulant in dogs and cats. It is commonly used for dogs with inappetence secondary to cancer (neoplasia), endocrine disease (such as diabetes), heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease, respiratory disease, pain, fever, nausea, and more. Read more about Anorexia in Dogs and Anorexia in Cats.
- Capromorelin also had benefits of improving strength and coordination.
Precautions and Side Effects
- While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, Capromorelin can cause side effects in some animals.
- Capromorelin should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
- While giving Capromorelin to stimulate your dog’s appetite, it is important that your veterinarian also help you diagnose the underlying condition causing the inappetence. Your veterinarian may want to perform blood work, urinalysis, radiographs (X-rays), and/or ultrasound to help determine the underlying cause of anorexia.
- Capromorelin may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with Capromorelin. Antifungal drugs such as itraconazole, fluconazole and ketoconazole should be used with caution in dogs taking Lower doses may be used in dogs with liver disease.
- The most common side effect of Capromorelin in dogs and cats is diarrhea, vomiting, elevated blood urea nitrogen, and excessive drinking (increased thirst). Other side effects include hypersalivation (drooling), nausea, flatulence (gas), abdominal discomfort, lethargy and/or depression.
- The safety of Capromorelin use in pets pregnant or lactating has not been established.
- Capromorelin is commonly used with other antiemetic (anti-vomiting) and anti-nausea drugs.
How Capromorelin is Supplied
- Capromorelin is available as oral solution concentrated at 30 mg/ml.
- Available in 10 mL, 15mL and 30 mL bottle sizes.
Dosing Information of Capromorelin for Dogs and Cats
- Medication should never be administered without first consulting with your veterinarian.
- For use in dogs as an appetite stimulant, the most common dosing is 3 mg/kg (1.4 mg/pound) orally every 24 hours. This works out to be 0.1 mL/kg body weight.
- The dose being used in cats is 2 mg/kg (0.9 mg/pound).
- To administer Capromorelin Oral Solution (Entyce®), shake to bottle then withdraw the recommended amount in the provided syringe. The syringe can be reused and should be washed between treatments.
- The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.
- Can be stored at room temperature. Keep away from light and moisture.
- CAPROMORELIN, AN ORALLY ACTIVE GHRELIN AGONIST, CAUSED SUSTAINED INCREASES IN IGF-1, INCREASED FOOD INTAKE AND BODY WEIGHT IN CATS. Conference Proceedings from the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) 2015. Bill Zollers, Julie Allen, Chelsey Kennedy, Linda Rhodes.
- A Prospective, Randomized, Masked, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study of Capromorelin in Dogs with Reduced Appetite. J Vet Intern Med. November 2016;30(6):1851-1857.B Zollers 1, J A Wofford 1, E Heinen 1, M Huebner 2, L Rhodes 1
- Evaluation of the safety of daily administration of capromorelin in cats.
- Language: English, J Vet Pharmacol Ther. October 2017;0(0):.J A Wofford 1, B Zollers 1, L Rhodes 1, M Bell 2, E Heinen 1
- Long-term effects of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor agonists on energy balance in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. July 2008;295(1):E78-84. Sabine Strassburg1, Stefan D Anker, Tamara R Castañeda, Lukas Burget, Diego Perez-Tilve, Paul T Pfluger, Ruben Nogueiras, Heather Halem, Jesse Z Dong, Michael D Culler, Rakesh Datta, Matthias H Tschöp.
- Effects by daily long term provision of ghrelin to unselected weight-losing cancer patients: a randomized double-blind study. April 2010;116(8):2044-52. Kent Lundholm 1, Lena Gunnebo, Ulla Körner, Britt-Marie Iresjö, Cecilia Engström, Anders Hyltander, Ulrika Smedh, Ingvar Bosaeus.